4G RAN (Radio Access Network) There are two different architectures through which the RU (Radio Unit) and the BBU (Baseband Unit) are connected to each other in a 4G RAN (Radio Access Network). The traditional monolithic base station/Enb architecture consists of radio unit and baseband hardware co-located in a cabinet or shelter at the cell site with the IP-enabled BBU sending and receiving traffic to and from the EPC. RADIO ACCESS NETWORK (RAN) IN 4G The eNBs are deployed at the bottom of the tower with coax feeder cables carrying the RF signal up and down the tower. The [...]
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Vision of a 5G Network Architecture In the future of wireless, a significant increase is expected in devices, device types, connections, applications data traffic and signaling. The traffic is expected to be bursty while IoT devices require connectionless services. The 5G network architecture will be designed after considering all these factors. VISION OF A 5G NETWORK ARCHITECTURE This requires the ability to program the network to support different applications via Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) and Software-Defined Network (SDN). The goal is to allow operators to rapidly deploy services and solutions. The enhanced network architecture provides ultra-low user plane latency [...]
4G LTE Network Architecture LTE, a 4G wireless technology which has been developed by 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project), an industry trade group. The 4G technology LTE that stands for Long Term Evolution has been named so because it represents an evolution from the very basic GSM technology (2G) to 3G standard (UMTS) and the next step comprises of LTE evolving from the third generation of wireless networks. In particular, the factors that led to the emergence of 4G technology are dedicated to the inefficiency of 3G network for supporting the demands of rapidly growing number of users and their expectations of [...]
LTE Broadcast One of the key technologies behind the LTE Broadcast is the Single Frequency Network. LTE BROADCAST LTE Broadcast uses the same base stations and radio frequency spectrum as normal LTE transmissions, except that during the broadcast event, a certain portion of radio resources in the cells covering the service area are dedicated to the broadcast service for the duration of the event. The reserved timeslots are used to broadcast the event and the remaining timeslots are used for normal LTE unicast transmissions. During the reserved broadcast timeslots, all participating base stations transmits exactly the same signals at [...]
Unicast Services in 4G LTE Media from content servers to end-user devices can be transmitted by unicast or broadcast methods. UNICAST SERVICES IN 4G LTE Unicast is an efficient mechanism to deliver services that require a bidirectional link, such as real-time voice and video communication, web, email or social media. Users are spread out sparsely over disjoint multiple radio cells, consuming different content at different times, such as on-demand video streaming. When multiple users are watching the same content, such content is transmitted multiple times within the transport network and on the radio interface, leading to very low efficiency.
Dual Connectivity in 4G In dual connectivity, the UE is provided resources from a master and secondary eNodeB. Dual Connectivity in 4G In dual connectivity, the UE is provided radio bearers from the two eNodeBs where packets transmission is scheduled by two distinct schedulers at the two eNodeBs. The user plane data is provided by both eNodeBs, while the control plane is provided by the master eNodeBs. Master eNodeB: This eNodeB terminates the least S1-MME, and the RRC functions is provided by this eNodeB. Secondary eNodeB: This eNodeB is providing additional radio resources for the UE.
Uplink CoMP in LTE Advanced The CoMP reception in the UL involves reception of the UE signal at more than one cell. Uplink CoMP in LTE Advanced One of the cells would be a “central” cell responsible for combining signals received at multiple cells. The CoMP cells in the “operating set” can participate in coordinated scheduling. The CoMP reception of the Physical Uplink Shared Channel at multiple cells may or may not be transparent to the UE. The CoMP reception resembles soft handover in the UL. The benefit of CoMP reception is higher cell-edge throughput. The cost is higher [...]
Downlink CoMP (Co-ordinated Multi-Point) in LTE Advanced The Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) feature is available for the DL and the UL. In the DL, CoMP transmission occurs, while CoMP reception is allowed in the UL. At a high level, CoMP transmission resembles soft handover and fast cell switching. CoMP transmission supports two cases, namely, Joint Processing (JP) and Coordinated Scheduling and Beamforming (CS/CB). Downlink CoMP-LTE Advanced Joint Processing (JP) has two use cases. The first case is where more than one cell transmits the same information at the same time. The UE then combines these two signals similar to 3G [...]
Soft-Handover in LTE Advanced LTE-Advanced supports multiple cells to coordinate their transmissions for a single user, providing a capability very similar in nature to soft handover used in 3G networks. Through Co-ordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) operation, multiple cells transmit the same data at the same time and receive the user’s transmissions at multiple locations; this approach is known as Joint Processing. The user is able to have a higher success rate than would be possible with only one cell involved, which results in improved performance at cell edges through macro diversity.
From ICIC (Inter Cell Interference Cancellation) to Further Enhanced ICIC Further Enhanced ICIC in Release 11 aims at strengthening the eICIC concept and boosting the overall performance. Due to synchronization signal collision from macro and picocells, a UE may have difficulty to detect picocells. To assist cell detection, the serving cell provides the UE a list of picocells IDs so that the UE can skip cell ID detection and directly perform picocell reference signal measurements. In order to enhance reliability, additional options are defined such as sending SIB1 information in a RRC Reconfiguration message or applying interference cancellation at the UE [...]